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where the college system was on a much greater scale, events ran
a somewhat similar course. But the residents in the Parisian
colleges were mainly undergraduates, not as in Oxford mainly
bachelors and masters ; and there the university retained a much
greater control of the colleges, and the success of the colleges did
not mean the supersession of the university, but the conversion of
the colleges into instruments of university teaching. The con-
sequence was that once the Middle Ages were past, the colleges in
Paris lost much of their early importance, as colleges. In contrast
with this, the colleges of Oxford, detached and nearly self-
sufficient, have continued to enjoy an almost medieval autonomy.
All the older colleges, except the monastic ones which disappeared
at the Reformation, still survive, and ten more colleges have, at
various times, been added to their number. With their system of
tutorial instruction, they carry on the old traditions of college life
more completely than any other university in the world.

The universities of Scotland rose under very different condi-
tions from those of England. In the centuries when the univer-
sities in more favoured countries were growing into powerful
centres of learning, Scotland was still too unsettled, by reason of
her own feeble government and the distraction of constant wars
with England, to have much leisure for scholarship ; and her
students had to go to other lands for the education they could not
get at home. It was not till the Fifteenth Century that her first
university was instituted at St. Andrews (1411), to be followed
at intervals of about forty years by foundations at Glasgow
(1450), and at Aberdeen (1494). (Edinburgh university was not
established till after the Reformation, in 1584.)

In each case the founder was the bishop of the city, and the
first intention was to have a comprehensive studium in which
theology and law, both canon and civil, would be taught. In the
outcome this programme of study proved too ambitious for a
country so poor and so meagrely populated as Scotland, and the
only faculty which had any success in the three universities at this
period was that of arts. This limitation did much to determine
their constitution. The hope of establishing schools of law made
their founders provide for a certain measure of student govern-
ment in partial imitation of Bologna, but the extreme youth of
the arts students reduced this to a mere form, and put the real
power into the hands of the regent masters. In actual fact their